PIREP Causes COMMS
The full list of conditions necessitating a special air report (also known as a PIREPPIREP —Pilot Report) is:
Moderate or severe turbulence Moderate or severe icing Severe mountain waves Thunderstorms Heavy dust or sandstorms Volcanic ash clouds Pre-eruption of volcanic activity Hail Embedded CBCB —Cumulonimbus clouds Widespread CBCB —Cumulonimbus clouds
Note that isolated CBCB —Cumulonimbuss are not included, nor is precipitation (other than hail). These may be trick answers on the exam. Note that for all of these, it does not matter how far away the phenomenon is.
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Which, if any of the following would necessitate the pilot making a special air report?