Activating the turbulence mode means the radar will not just be looking at where the return pulses come from and their distance, but also any frequency shift in the returning pulse. If the frequency has changed, then the thing the pulse bounced off must itself be moving - which in turn, implies movement of the air, and turbulence. Note that pulses must have something to bounce off (ideally, large droplets) - they cannot detect clear air turbulence.

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What does selecting the WX+T mode on an airborne weather radar do?